Read the passage from the Chambliss and Eglitis textbook below (this passage can

Read the passage from the Chambliss and Eglitis textbook below (this passage can also be found pp 402-405 in your textbook)
When you finish reading the passage, follow the instructions below for writing the essay
Jürgen Habermas argues that in capitalists democracies, political systems are blamed for economic problems in order to sustain the economic system. Below is an excerpt from the Chambliss and Eglitis textbook:
Leaders in modern democratic capitalist societies such as the United States are caught between potentially contradictory demands. They seek widespread popular support, yet they must satisfy the demands of the elites whose financial backing is essential for electoral success. On one hand, voters are likely to look to their political leaders to back benefits such as retirement income (in the form of Social Security, for instance), housing supports (affordable housing for low-income families or mortgage tax breaks for wealthier ones), and environmental protection. On the other hand, such programs are costly to implement and entail economic costs to corporations, developers, and other members of the elite. Some theorists argue that modern governments thus are caught in a conflict between their need to realize the interests of the capitalist class and their desire to win the support and loyalty of other classes (Held, 1989; Offe, 1984; Wolfe, 1977).
Jürgen Habermas (1976), a contemporary theorist with a conflict orientation, argues that modern countries have integrated their economic and political systems, reducing the likelihood of economic crisis while increasing the chances of a political crisis. He terms this the legitimation crisis. Governments have intervened in the market and, to some degree, solved the most acute contradictions of capitalism—including extreme income inequalities and tumultuous economic cycles—that Marx argued could be addressed only in a proletarian revolution. Governments often act to keep inflation and deflation in check, to regulate interest rates, and to provide social assistance to those who have lost jobs. Thus, economics is politicized, and the citizenry may come to expect that economic troubles will be solved through state structures and social welfare.
To understand Habermas’s argument more fully, imagine a postindustrial U.S. city. The loss of jobs and industries manifests itself as a crisis—thousands of jobs in auto and other manufacturing industries move abroad, local businesses suffer as the amount of disposable income held by local people plummets, and economic pain is acute. How, in modern society, does our hypothetical city (which has hundreds of authentic counterparts in the United States) respond? Does it erupt in revolutionary fervor, with displaced laborers calling for class struggle? Or do people look to their local, state, and federal governments to provide relief in the form of tax cuts or credits, unemployment benefits, and plans for attracting new industries?
The citizenry of modern capitalism, says Habermas, does not widely question the legitimacy of capitalism. If there is a crisis, it is political, and it is solved with policies that may smooth capitalism’s bumpy ride. In a sense, the state becomes the focus of discontent—in a democracy, political decision makers can be changed and a crisis averted. The economic system that brings many of these crises into being, however, remains in shadow, its legitimacy rarely questioned.
-Chambliss and Eglitis, 2020, pp.402-405
Reading the above passage from your textbook, it is interesting to note how Jürgen Habermas argues that capitalism is sustained by the interplay between political and economic systems. As long as the capitalist system is intact, economic elites, including multinational corporations, are able to continue to grow their profits at the expense of growing inequalities that other social classes must endure. Why don’t the masses overthrow the capitalist system?
Habermas argues that citizens in democratic capitalist societies tend to blame their economic problems on politically elected leaders rather than on capitalism itself.
In a representative democracy, elected officials are obliged to make corrections to the economy if that is what their electorate is demanding (i.e., lower taxes, send out relief checks, provide more public services, etc…).
Habermas argues that, as a result of these politically motivated corrections made to the economy, citizens are not able see the true ugliness of capitalism.
This ensures that the capitalist system maintains it’s legitimacy as it is never identified as a cause of people’s suffering.
Thus, Habermas argues that by framing economic problems as a political crisis, the political system is blamed for economic problems. This maintains the legitimacy of the economic system and prevents the formation of a revolt against capitalism.
In 100-150 words write a reply to this prompt in a .doc., docx, .pdf or .rtf document:
The reading above identifies Jürgen Habermas as a contemporary theorist with a conflict orientation. In a paragraph or two, explain why his argument reflects the conflict perspective.
In your explanation, identify the relevant points in his argument and the relevant elements of the conflict perspective that apply (see p. 19 in the textbook).
You should reference material from the lesson and textbook and cite where appropriate, the explanation should be in your own words (see originality rules below).
Your file should only include your typed response, do not include the instructions or other superfluous information.
Do not mistake a short essay for an easy essay. It is difficult to be succinct and accurate.
The essay should be between 100-150 words.
There is a 15% penalty for every 10 word below the minimum.
There is a 5% penalty for every 20 words above the maximum.
There is no penalty for the first 10 words below the minimum or the first 20 words above the maximum.

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