F‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍irst essay | 2500 words First assessment: – Times New Roman

F‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍irst essay | 2500 words First assessment: – Times New Roman, size 12 font, double spaced, with numbered pages and your student number printed as a footer on every page. Harvard style referencing The majority of references should come from primary sources (e.g., journal articles, conference papers, reports) Identify a communicable or non-communicable disease, or health condition of interest. Provide a critical overview of this disease or condition, including a justification of your choice in relation to its importance to public health. The essay should include a concise, critical evaluation of the existing body of evidence, underpinned by epidemiological data and analysis that identify causation/association, risk factors, at-risk populations and trends. Your work should include and cover the following sections/aspects and content (as shown and stated in the table below): Introduction: An introduction to the assignment that establishes the importance of the chosen communicable or noncommunicable disease, or health condition of interest. Relevant information should aim to provide a critical overview of the specific disease or health condition considered, and examine its importance to public health in order to justify the choice made. (15 Marks) Discussion: Examination, taking a critical evaluation approach, of the relevant epidemiological evidence focused on the specific disease or health condition chosen (from published epidemiological studies) including identification of strengths and limitations of specific aspects of these studies (suggestions below) which are most relevant, including methods used and interpretation of results in studies, taking into consideration that it may be the case in some instances that a study fails to report some details on methodology that you wish to evaluate (. details for adequate bias control measures). This examination, taking a critical evaluation approach, therefore also needs to be underpinned by epidemiological data and analysis from these studies in order to identify risk factors for acquiring the specific disease or health condition, highlight relevant trends and at-risk populations and demonstrate an understanding of relevant measures of association and principles of causation. In addressing specific aspects of the studies in relation to their strengths and limitations, you may consider the most relevant of the suggested specific aspects below: i) Study objectives and hypothesis (the main purpose of the study, including research question, a supportive hypothesis and objective(s)) ii) Study design (its appropriateness in reference to the research question and objective(s)) iii) Study population (recruitment including inclusion and exclusion criteria) iv) Exposure and outcome & their measurement (for example, for cohort studies, were outcomes defined at the start of the study; for case-control studies, did the exposure precede the outcome, etc.) v) Internal validity (likelihood that the results are affected by selection bias, observation/measurement bias, confounding factors, in case of an intervention whether randomization was done correctly & the assessments of outcomes were blinded, etc.) vi) Data analysis and results (appropriateness of the statistical methods used and interpretation of the results) vii) External validity (generalizability of the study findings) Implications: Consider the relevant epidemiological evidence (critically) examined from published epidemiological studies in the preceding sections of the assignment, and build up on it by proposing possible implications or applications for epidemiological research, public health practice or policy, ensuring that you identify strengths and limitations of these implications/applications. (20 Marks) Conclusion: Effective summary of key points. (10 Marks) Presentation and Referencing: High quality presentation that conforms to principles of academic writing and contains minimal errors in sentence construction, grammar and punctuation. The assignment followed appropriate academic conventions regarding in-text citations and referencing. Second essay (part 1) | 2000 words Second assessment: Based on the same topic chosen for the first essay, identify an epidemiological study that has been ‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍published in a peer-reviewed journal within the past 5 years: Summarize the study and then critically evaluate the evidence that it provides to public health practitioners. In doing so, identify and explore its weaknesses and limitations, and make robust recommendations for how the study could have been improved (2000 words). Please note that the epidemiological study that you choose to focus on for this assessment should not have been considered in the first assessment point. Your work should include and cover the following sections/aspects and content (as shown and stated in the table below). Introduction: An introduction to the assignment that clearly states what the communicable or non-communicable disease, or health condition of interest is (as the assessment task is based on the same topic chosen for essay 1), introduces the selected epidemiological study and establishes the importance of the selected epidemiological study for public health research and/or practice. Relevant information should aim to provide a brief summary of the selected epidemiological study and discuss its relation to contemporary public health research and/or practice. Please make sure that the epidemiological study that you select for this assessment has been published in a peer reviewed journal within the past 5 years. Also, please note that the epidemiological study that you choose to focus on for this assessment should not have been considered in the first assessment point. (15 Marks) Discussion: Critical evaluation of the quality of the evidence (with a focus on the findings) offered by the selected epidemiological study taking into account what it provides for public health practitioners and key uses of this epidemiological evidence in public health (for example, (epidemiological evidence on environmental health risk assessment used in the development of environmental health policies, or that from clinical studies on the use of drugs and placebos to discover information that is critical for improved medical decision making, etc.). With reference to relevant epidemiological theory, identify and explore the weaknesses and limitations (for example, study methodology, up-to-date applicability etc.) of the selected epidemiological study. (35 Marks) Implications: In relation to the selected epidemiological study, critically discuss recommendations able to minimize the identified weaknesses and limitations (for example, study methodology, up-to-date applicability etc.) and therefore improving the epidemiological study. Relevant recommendations should be based on contemporary epidemiological theory and practice. (25 Marks) Conclusion: Effective summary of key points. (10 Marks) Presentation and Referencing: High quality presentation that conforms to principles of academic writing and contains minimal errors in sentence construction, grammar and punctuation. The assignment followed appropriate academic conventions regarding in-text citations and referencing. Second essay (Part 2) | 500 words: Using a style appropriate to a non-academic audience (for example, newspaper readers), summarize this study, outlining its significance for public health (500 words). For this particular part (Part 2) of this second assessment point, please remember that you must use exactly the same epidemiological study that you chose to use for Part 1 of this second assessment point. Your work should include and cover the following sections/aspects and content (as shown and stated in the table below). The specific percentage marks allocated to each section/aspect of your work is stated below. Communication of science to the public Summarize the selected epidemiological study (including its findings), outlining its significance for public health, in a form of a written communication, using a style appropriate to a nonacademic audience. This should not exceed 500 words. Please remember that you must use exactly the same epidemiological study that you chose to use for Part 1 of this second assessment point. (75 Marks) Presentation: High quality presentation that is written clearly for a nonacademic audience and contains minimal errors in sentence construction, grammar and punctuation. Don’t worry about the student number, I’ll apply it after it’s finished‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍.

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